A concept that has been gaining more and more importance is the Internet of Things (IoT), a fascinating technological paradigm full of promise and expectations. IoT represents a possible evolution in the use of the Internet, seen as an extension of the Internet to the world of objects which can acquire an identity in the digital world, make themselves known, be located and gain intelligence thanks to their ability to communicate data about themselves and access information provided by others. They are capable of interacting with the surrounding environment and of processing data. The goal of IoT is to trace a map of the real world in the digital world by giving an electronic identity to objects and places of the physical world. This is possible thanks to embedded microprocessors and sensors that make them capable of communicating with the outside world creating wireless networks that are connected to the Internet.
There are numerous fields of application: from production processes to logistics, from infomobility to energy efficiency, from remote assistance to caring for the environment.
The world of intelligence objects is as not far as one might think. Many other projects in Italy and throughout the world. One need only consider the electricity and gas counters, the increasing use of SIM cards for data only transmissions which are connected to objects, to video surveillance systems.
The Smart City is a concrete example of how IoT can be applied: it is a completely new vision of the city concept, seen as a combination of information flows and networks of relationships and communications, both physical and digital, characterized by the ability to create social capital, wellness for people, a better quality of life.
The word “smart” can imply many things: brilliant, intelligent, quick are all words that will represent the ideal city, especially the Metropolitan city.
The Smart City takes advantages of new technologies to remain updated and connect off to the network, but it is also a place with a low environmental impact where people move with ease, there is no traffic congestion, cars are used as little as possible and administrative, city, commercial or health services are accessed from the comfort of the home. Getting around is easy because one knows precisely when a bus or trolley is going to pass. People can work directly from home, making it easier for working mothers. School lessons can be followed from home even by a sick student. Telemedicine helps senior citizens who have difficulty moving around.
The Smart City is capable of accommodating and satisfying the needs of its citizens, companies and institutions, especially in the fields of communication, mobility, environment and energy efficiency.
The main areas of interest are the attention to people’s needs, the prudent management of resources, the search for sustainable growth and economic sustainability, the reduction of waste in all areas, from energy use to garbage handling, and the reduction of pollution, also thanks to improved urban and transportation planning.
Sustainability, urban livability and economic dynamism are the goals of an intelligent city.
Various aspects of primary importance in everyday life fall into this field: efficiency in the use of energy and water, the monitoring and control of environmental impact by measuring the pollution level in the air and water, traffic management, traffic light management, road network, street lighting, updated information regarding traffic, parking management, management and locating of means of public transportation, monitoring of the flow of travelers, control of the home and work environment, services for citizens and tourists, control of the area through video surveillance and identification of dangerous situations, garbage collection and identification and monitoring of the fill level of garbage bins, healthcare, public safety and much more.